By Goran Bergman
I. advent 3
II. equipment 7
1. fabric and means of recording 7
2. movie research 7
three. The meteorological facts 9
III. The id of the migrants 10
IV. the rate and course of migration thirteen
1. the rate of flight and its dependence on quite a few exterior and internal
2. The course of migration and the standards affecting it 21
three. The effect of topographical components at the path 36
V. The influence of meteorological elements at the depth of migration 44
1. power and course of the wind 45
2. Cloudiness 47
three. Visibility 49
four. Temperature 50
VI. The geographical distribution of the migration 50
References fifty seven
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Additional resources for An analysis of the spring migration of the Common Scoter and the Long-tailed Duck in southern Finland
1 2 . oo and 2 2 . oo. persistent maintenance of direction if normal orientational clues are lacking appears sufficient to explain migration of the present duck species under an overcast sky, especially considering that generally a fully overcast sky tends to abolish migration completely (p. 48) . Further, the direction of flight \vith a nearly full overcast is always such as to indicate guidance by the coast, which apparently under such conditions gives the immediate orientational clue. The migration studied here begins in full daylight and is normally quite intense already before sunset.
Km, in the western part of the area only 300 m. G. SE, 4 m/sec, 30 k m . H. ESE, 5 m/sec, 25 km. ,. · /' - -- - -- - - - - ? /' - - --- - - - --(- -- - -- B I . I ' t I : -: i oi ---- - ---� FIG. 1 7 . A-D. Routes of night migration in the Porkala-Helsingfors area during different conditions of wind and visibility. Symbols used same as in Fig. 16. A . Wind: SW, 0-1 m/sec, visibility 30 km, moonlight. B. SW, 1 m /sec, 20 km. C. SW, 3 m/sec, > 30 km. D. SE, 3 m/sec, 15 km, upper wind E, 6 m /sec.
1. Strength and direction of the wind A general picture of the effect of both the strength and direction of the wind is obtained in Fig. 20, which gives the intensity of migration in relation to the direction of the prevailing wind. Here data are given for each evening (open circ1es) and night (filled circles) for which radar observations are available from the central parts of the Gulf of Finland. There is a clear predominance of cases with winds between S and SW. In a qualitative way Fig. 20 demonstrates that there is indeed a connection between wind direction and the intensity of migration, so that winds from the NE appear to reduce or abolish migration completely, whereas the really high intensities of migration are to be found with winds between S and W.
An analysis of the spring migration of the Common Scoter and the Long-tailed Duck in southern Finland by Goran Bergman