By Zachary Alan Selden
Even supposing US international coverage used to be mostly unpopular within the early 2000s, many geographical regions, in particular these bordering Russia and China, multiplied their safety cooperation with the United States. In Alignment, Alliance, and American Grand method, Zachary Selden notes that the nearby strength of those intolerant states urged threatened neighboring states to align with the United States. Gestures of alignment contain participation in significant joint army routines, involvement in US-led operations, the negotiation of agreements for US army bases, and efforts to hitch a US-led alliance. against this, Brazil is additionally a emerging local strength, yet because it is a democratic nation, its pals haven't sought better alliance with the United States.
Amid demands retrenchment or restraint, Selden makes the case coverage taken with protecting American army preeminence and the verified willingness to take advantage of strength should be what sustains the cooperation of second-tier states, which in flip support to take care of US hegemony at a conceivable expense.
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Extra resources for Alignment, Alliance, and American Grand Strategy
9 Twenty-one participated in US-led military operations in Iraq, and eighteen participated in Afghanistan. In fact, the vast majority of non-NATO allies that participated in either operation come from this group of states. Many increased their participation in military exercises and training, and twenty-three participated in three or Table 1. —Continued Country Peak participation in US-led military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan (number of troops) Participation in major military exercises on annual basis Tajikistan Thailand Turkmenistan Ukraine no participation minor (423) no participation significant (2,000) no participation very significant no participation very significant Uzbekistan Vietnam no participation no participation very significant minor Basing of US Armed Forces or host agreement existing US security treaty via NATO or bilateral existing bilateral sought NATO membership until 2010 new base Sources: US Department of Defense.
The states around Brazil, however, do not appear to have engaged in similar behavior from 2001 to 2009 (table 2). Of the eleven states surrounding Brazil, none participated in US-led operations in Afghanistan or Iraq. Most of those states participate in some major annual military exercises with the United States, and two of them (PANAMAX and Fuerzas Comandos) began in 2003. This would indicate that at some level, security cooperation with the United States increased moderately in the 2000s. But unlike exercises in Asia or Europe, which rarely include China or Russia, most of the major exercises in Latin America are conducted with Brazil as one of the larger participants.
Whether or not the democratic peace is a valid idea, perceptions of its validity are important in this case. Second-tier states engage in balancing and strategic hedging primarily in a regional context, and they focus on the regional power rather than the globally predominant power. This has significant effects on the international system because their concern over regional powers leads them to align to varying degrees with the globally predominant power. Because secondary states out of their own self-interest often make small but significant contributions to the endurance of that global power’s hegemony, the overall effect may be to extend American hegemony, even as its relative power position declines.
Alignment, Alliance, and American Grand Strategy by Zachary Alan Selden