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Why did the German humans tolerate the Nazi insanity? Maria Ritter's existence is haunted through the ever-painful, never-answerable "German query. " Who knew? What used to be identified? Confronting the profound silence within which so much postwar Germans buried ache and disgrace, she makes an attempt during this memoir to provide a solution for herself and for her iteration.

Workers and nationalism : Czech and German social democracy by Jakub S. Beneš PDF

This paintings tells the tale of ways nationalism unfold between commercial staff in valuable Europe within the 20th century, addressing the far-reaching results, together with the democratization of Austrian politics, the cave in of internationalist socialist team spirit prior to global conflict I, and the twentieth-century triumph of Social Democracy in a lot of Europe.

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See Heinrich Mann. DER BLAUE REITER. See Expressionism. BLOCH, ERNST (1885–1977), social philosopher; evolved a Marxism sustained more by Kant than by Marx. Born in Ludwigshafen, he studied during 1911–1916 at Heidelberg, forming a friendship with fellow student Georg Luka´cs*; Luka´cs labeled him a ‘‘born philosopher’’ of the Hegelian type. Swayed by Expressionism* and the intellectual milieu of postwar Munich, his ideas embody key contradictions. He began his career in 1918 at Leipzig with publication of Geist der Utopie (Spirit of utopia), followed in 1922 with a study of Thomas Mu¨nzer that blended Marxism and mysticism.

In 1930 he issued an exhortation asking that Catholics* rebuff fanaticism and distance themselves from racism. Under his guidance the conference issued a 1932 prohibition on joining the NSDAP. Old enough to sustain wounds from the Kulturkampf, Bertram was horrified when Hitler* seized power. He had once denounced the idea of an Aryanized church, but he revised his maxim to avoid endangering Catholicism. He insisted on patience and compromise (he habitually sent Hitler birthday greetings), and his posture seriously damaged his reputation.

During 1909–1912 he designed private homes, a crematorium, a Catholic meeting house, the Ketten Bridge of Cologne, the new buildings of the Frankfurt Gas Company, the offices of the Mannesmann Conduit Company in Du¨sseldorf, the German embassy in St. * Concurrently, he completed numerous designs for AEG. When his creativity led him to work in stone, he contrived the gabled script on the Reichstag,* Dem deutschen Volk (1916), and a tombstone in Heidelberg for Friedrich Ebert* (1925). His garden designs were shown in Du¨sseldorf, Bern, Oldenburg, Mannheim, and Munich, and his Wintergarten appeared in 1925 at the Paris Exposition for the Decorative Arts.

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A historical dictionary of germany's weimar republic, 1918-1933 by C. Paul Vincent


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