By Enrico Perla B.Sc. Computer Science University of Torino M.Sc. Computer Science Trinity College Dublin, Massimiliano Oldani
A advisor to Kernel Exploitation: Attacking the center discusses the theoretical suggestions and ways had to advance trustworthy and powerful kernel-level exploits, and applies them to various working structures, particularly, UNIX derivatives, Mac OS X, and home windows. ideas and strategies are provided categorically in order that even if a particularly targeted vulnerability has been patched, the foundational info supplied may also help hackers in writing a more recent, higher assault; or aid pen testers, auditors, and so on enhance a extra concrete layout and protecting constitution.
The e-book is prepared into 4 components. half I introduces the kernel and units out the theoretical foundation on which to construct the remainder of the ebook. half II makes a speciality of varied working structures and describes exploits for them that concentrate on numerous computer virus sessions. half III on distant kernel exploitation analyzes the consequences of the distant state of affairs and provides new options to focus on distant matters. It features a step by step research of the improvement of a competent, one-shot, distant make the most for a true vulnerabilitya malicious program affecting the SCTP subsystem present in the Linux kernel. eventually, half IV wraps up the research on kernel exploitation and appears at what the long run may possibly hold.
- Covers quite a number working process households ― UNIX derivatives, Mac OS X, Windows
- Details universal situations equivalent to favourite reminiscence corruption (stack overflow, heap overflow, etc.) matters, logical insects and race conditions
- Delivers the reader from user-land exploitation to the area of kernel-land (OS) exploits/attacks, with a specific concentrate on the stairs that bring about the construction of winning concepts, so as to supply to the reader whatever greater than only a set of tricks
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Additional info for A Guide to Kernel Exploitation: Attacking the Core
In the end, an attacker needs to overwrite them to reach the sensible data stored behind. This is just a starting point for what the software should do, but where should you put this power? Which entity should have such a degree of control and influence over all the other applications? The answer is: the kernel. WHY DOESN’T MY USER-LAND EXPLOIT WORK ANYMORE? ), and they have found that the kernel has been one of the most effective places in which to implement those countermeasures. com) for the Linux kernel, or the security enhancements in, for example, OpenBSD (W^X, Address Space Layout Randomization [ASLR]) or Windows (data execution prevention, ASLR), to get an idea how high the barrier has been raised for user-land exploit developers.
MEMORY CORRUPTION VULNERABILITIES The next major bug class we will analyze covers all cases in which kernel memory is corrupted as a consequence of some misbehaving code that overwrites the kernel’s contents. There are two basic types of kernel memory: the kernel stack, which is associated to each thread/process whenever it runs at the kernel level, and the kernel heap, which is used each time a kernel path needs to allocate some small object or some temporary space. As we did for pointer corruption vulnerabilities (and as we will do throughout this chapter), we leave the details regarding exploitation of such issues for Chapter 3, (for generic approaches) and to the chapters in Part II of this book.
We said that this allocator is a consumer of the physical page allocator; it asks for pages, and eventually it returns them. 45), and pages containing objects of the same size are grouped together. This group of pages is usually referred to as a cache. Although objects can be of virtually any size, power-of-two sizes are generally used, for efficiency reasons. When some kernel subsystem asks for an object, the allocator returns a pointer to one of those chunks. The allocator also needs to keep track of which objects are free (to be able to satisfy the subsequent allocation/free correctly).
A Guide to Kernel Exploitation: Attacking the Core by Enrico Perla B.Sc. Computer Science University of Torino M.Sc. Computer Science Trinity College Dublin, Massimiliano Oldani