Read e-book online A Brief History of the Netherlands (Brief History) PDF

By Paul F State

ISBN-10: 0816071071

ISBN-13: 9780816071074

ISBN-10: 143810832X

ISBN-13: 9781438108322

Regardless of the country's small dimension, the Netherlands has performed a comparatively huge half within the historical past of trade, executive, artwork, and faith, and it has left an indelible imprint on all the world's continents. this article presents a normal evaluation of the historical past of the rustic from precedent days onwards.

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Dirk IV (r. 1039–49) fought Bernold (r. 1027–54), the lordbishop of Utrecht, who allied with Holy Roman Emperor Henry III (r. 1039–56) in seizing Flushing (Vlissingen). The emperor’s forces sacked Leiden in 1047 and Dirk met defeat. His successors, however, proved more fortunate. From their castle at Haarlem, the counts waged nonstop feudal strife in winning the Scheldt estuaries in battles with the counts of Flanders and in wrestling for control of the west coast of the Zuider Zee with the rulers of Utrecht and Gelderland.

Benedict in 1098 found a foothold through the influence of Bernard of Clairvaux (1090– 1153), who, having established his order of Cistercian monks, twice journeyed to the Low Countries where he founded two abbeys. True to the order’s call to build monasteries in remote locales and thus develop the wilderness, houses were planted on polders and in sand dunes, notably the Abbey of Klaarkamp, where the monks, assisted by lay brothers, built dikes and cultivated land on the island of Schiermonnikoog.

Considered socii (allies), they paid no taxes but were compelled to contribute troops to the Roman legions. Roman historian Tacitus called them the bravest of the Germans, and the Batavian cavalry became famous throughout the empire. E. First in the line of march were the Frisians. , they allied themselves to Rome; over the succeeding years, Frisia became a conduit through which Roman armies trudged back and forth to and from Germany in a cycle of invasions and withdrawals, the Romans always falling back to the series of riverside forts they built that defined the Rhine defenses.

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A Brief History of the Netherlands (Brief History) by Paul F State


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