Download e-book for iPad: 52.Reliability by John G. Webster (Editor)

By John G. Webster (Editor)

Show description

Read Online or Download 52.Reliability PDF

Similar encyclopedia books

Download e-book for iPad: Boston's Gun Bible, Volume 3 by Boston T. Party, Kenneth W. Royce

Cognizance: i didn't separate the e-book in three elements, that's how the electronic model is bought. additionally, this is often the quantity three out of three and is constructed from chapters 31-46, whereas quantity 1 has chapters 1-15, and quantity 2, 16-30 - and the 3 mixed are similar to the actual model of the ebook. Now all the 3 volumes were uploaded in Retail shape.

Sprange M.'s Encyclopaedia Arcane: Demonology - The Dark Road PDF

Encyclopaedia Arcane: Demonology - The darkish highway presents video games Masters and avid gamers alike with all of the info they should introduce this harmful kind of magic into their campaigns. The Demonologist personality classification is gifted along those that pass a ways deeper into the artwork, the mysterious Binder and the feared Possessed.

Additional resources for 52.Reliability

Example text

In the general case, when there are j mechanisms operating and each one affects only a small part of the population, the total pdf is given by k f T (t) = a j f j (t) (16) j=1 where f j(t) ϭ pdf of the jth mode aj ϭ population fraction affected by mode j An analogous formula describes FT(t). Then the hazard rate for the population is computed from f T(t) and FT(t). Such situations are described as mixed-mode models. THERMOMECHANICAL MODELS Fatigue Thermomechanical fatigue is the predominant failure mechanism of first- and second-level interconnects.

According to Huntington (49), the main contributors to Q* in a diffusion vacancy mechanism are the migration energy ⌬Hm and the vacancy energy of formation ⌬Hf , written as Q* ϭ ͱ⌬Hm Ϫ ⌬Hf . 8. 3 kJ/mol. 5 kJ/mol. Evidently, Q* is a quantity af- 206 DESIGN FOR MICROELECTRONICS RELIABILITY fected by many variables and must be determined for each material. In practice, Q* becomes part of the proportionality constant, and the experimental variables are ⌬T across the joint and average T. Gurp, deWaard, and Duchatenier (50) studied the thermomigration of indium and determined the heat of transport Q*.

For high-lead Pb-Sn, the predominant oxide formed is SnO, which covers the entire surface of the alloy despite the low Sn concentration. At temperatures above 100ЊC, some PbO also forms. Tin oxide performs a useful function for solder bumps, namely, that of protecting the joint from corrosion by lead carbonate formation. On the other hand, its presence at any stage of the process hinders solder wettability and prevents the bumps from achieving a spherical shape. Lead carbonate also increases contact resistance for pad-on-pad or edge connectors thus influencing the thermal properties and package thermal management.

Download PDF sample

52.Reliability by John G. Webster (Editor)

by Kevin

Rated 4.31 of 5 – based on 39 votes

About the Author